Veterinary Applications

Since the discovery of bacteriophages during 1915-1917 (see Phage History), they have been used to prevent and treat various bacterial infections. Although “phage therapy” has been historically associated with the use of bacteriophages in human medicine, phages also have been extensively used in veterinary medicine1. The first-known therapeutic use of phages in veterinary medicine is associated with Felix d’Herelle (who was also the first to use phages to treat human infections, see Human Therapeutics), the co-discoverer of bacteriophages, who examined their efficacy – in France, during 1919 – in preventing and treating Salmonella infections in chickens. Phages effectively reduced chicken mortality, which prompted other investigators to examine their possible usefulness in preventing and treating other naturally-occurring and experimental bacterial infections in animals. In that regard, phages have been reported to be a safe and effective preventive/treatment modality against numerous bacterial infections of animals. Some examples would include:

Intralytix believes that bacteriophage preparations can be invaluable for preventing or treating many bacterial infections that cause animal morbidity or mortality. Phages are ubiquitous in the environment and their use in veterinary medicine or agribusiness (e.g., livestock) is likely to provide one of the most environmentally-friendly antibacterial approaches available today. In addition, phages' several important advantages over antibiotics2 make their use in various livestock industries potentially very appealing.

For example (from 1):

Intralytix’s phage preparations for veterinary applications: PLSV-1™ and INT-401™

Intralytix has developed and is continuing to develop phage preparations for preventing and treating bacterial diseases of pets and other animals, including agriculturally-important animals. The company has developed and licensed bacteriophage-based animal health care products effective against Salmonella (PLSV-1™) and Clostridium perfringens (INT-401™) in poultry3.


1. Sulakvelidze, A. and Barrow, P., Phage therapy in animals and agribusiness, in Bacteriophages: Biology and Applications, Kutter, E. and Sulakvelidze, A. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2005, pp. 335-380.
2. Pirisi, A., Phage therapy - advantages over antibiotics?, Lancet 356 (9239), 1418, 2000.
3. Miller, R. W., E. J. Skinner, A. Sulakvelidze, G. F. Mathis, and C. L. Hofacre. Bacteriophage therapy for control of necrotic enteritis of broiler chickens experimentally infected with Clostridium perfringens. Avian Dis. 2010, 54(1):33-40.


Food Safety

Environmental Sanitation

Veterinary Applications

Human Therapeutics